Monthly Archives: August 2014

“‘real exchange'”

“This is a constitutive view of discourse: discourse shapes the development of ‘real exchange’ as the value relation, a relation in thought/speech – a discourse – becomes ‘objectified’. It is not, however, an idealist view of discourse, but a dialectical one: ‘real exchange’ shapes the development of discourse – it is only at a certain stage in the development of ‘real exchange’ that the value relation is ‘established in thought’ – which shapes the development of ‘real exchange’.” (Fairclough, CDA, p.339-340)

“not a purely ‘academic’ challenge”

“Developing CDA in this direction is not a purely ‘academic’ challenge. (…) if CDA is to engage in the critique of language in the new capitalism, we need to be in tune with the most developed work in contemporary political economy and other political and social sciences.” (Fairclough, CDA, p.337)

“real” / “actual” (2)

“the ‘real’ for critical realism is structures and their associated ‘mechanisms’, i.e., the structural delimitation of the possible, whereas the ‘actual’ is the concrete, i.e., what actually happens as opposed to what could happen.” (Fairclough, CDA, p.295)


“this sort of political discourse deals in imaginaries: it projects ways of acting and ways of being. Whether it remains merely a construal of possible ways of acting and being, or comes to construct real ways of acting and being, is a contingent matter” (Fairclough, CDA, p.292)

“One might refer rather to ‘registers’, but…”

“A discourse is a representation of some area of social life from a particular perspective. One might refer rather to ‘registers’, but ‘discourses’ implies that all domains of social life (and of language use) are multi-perspectival, e.g., representing economic production in terms of ‘creativity’ might be abhorrent from certain perspectives in the artistic field.” (Fairclough, CDA, p.289-290)

lexicographer’s instinct

“For instance, a collocation search on the word ‘run’ will highlight the word ‘short’. The lexicographer needs the instinct either to guess or to know to check that this is because of the idiom ‘in the short run’ or the collocaton ‘run short (of something)’, rather than just a literal combination, as in ‘I went for a short run.'” (The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics, p.441)

“the background of the usual and everyday”

“individual texts can be explained only against a background of what is normal and expected in general language use, and this is precisely the comparative information that quantitative corpus data can provide. An understanding of the background of the usual and everyday — what happens millions of times — is necessary in order to understand the unique. (Stubbs 2005: 5, emphasis added)” (The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics, p. 304)

“language, power and ideology”

“CDA investigates how language use reproduces the perspectives, values and ways of talking of the powerful, which may not be in the interests of the less powerful. It thus focuses on the relationship between language, power and ideology.” (The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics, p.563)

“real” / “actual”

“In CR terms the gap between the productive potential (‘real’) of semiotic systems and the ‘actual’ of semiotic facets of events is such that other structures need to be postulated at lower (i.e., closer to the concrete) levels of abstraction. We call these ‘semiotic orders’.” (Fairclough, CDA, p.213)